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Q33. - (Topic 2) 

Which two statements about the OSPF Router ID are true? (Choose two.) 

A. It identifies the source of a Type 1 LSA. 

B. It should be the same on all routers in an OSPF routing instance. 

C. By default, the lowest IP address on the router becomes the OSPF Router ID. 

D. The router automatically chooses the IP address of a loopback as the OSPF Router ID. 

E. It is created using the MAC Address of the loopback interface. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

From the output of the “show ip ospf database”: r120#show ip ospf data 

OSPF Router with ID (10.0.0.120) (Process ID 1) 

Next, who are the other routers in our area? Router Link States (Area 1) Link ID.ADV Router.Age.Seq#.Checksum Link count 

10.0.0.111.10.0.0.111.600.0x8000023A 0x0092B3 1 

10.0.0.112.10.0.0.112.1246.0x80000234 0x009CAC 1 

10.0.0.113.10.0.0.113.148.0x8000022C 0x004399 3 

10.0.0.120.10.0.0.120.152.0x80000240 0x0046CB 1 This tells us there are four routers in Area 1. The router with RID 10.0.0.113 has 3 links in Area 1, every one else has only 1 link. Also the router will chose the highest loopback interface as its OSPF router ID (if available). 


Q34. - (Topic 3) 

What is the purpose of LCP? 

A. to perform authentication 

B. to negotiate control options 

C. to encapsulate multiple protocols 

D. to specify asynchronous versus synchronous 

Answer:

Explanation: 

In order to be sufficiently versatile to be portable to a wide variety of environments, PPP provides a Link Control Protocol (LCP). The LCP is used to automatically agree upon the encapsulation format options, handle varying limits on sizes of packets, detect a looped-back link and other common misconfiguration errors, and terminate the link. Other optional facilities provided are authentication of the identity of its peer on the link, and determination when a link is functioning properly and when it is failing. 

Reference: Link Control Protocol 

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1661.txt 


Q35. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

RTA is configured with a basic configuration. The link between the two routers is operational and no routing protocols are configured on either router. The line shown in the exhibit is then added to router RTA. Should interface Fa0/0 on router RTB shut down, what effect will the shutdown have on router RTA? 

A. A route to 172.16.14.0/24 will remain in the RTA routing table. 

B. A packet to host 172.16.14.225 will be dropped by router RTA. 

C. Router RTA will send an ICMP packet to attempt to verify the route. 

D. Because router RTB will send a poison reverse packet to router RTA, RTA will remove the route. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Static routes remain in the routing table even if the specified gateway becomes unavailable. If the specified gateway becomes unavailable, you need to remove the static route from the routing table manually. However, static routes are removed from the routing table if the specified interface goes down, and are reinstated when the interface comes back up. Therefore the static route will only be removed from the routing table if the S0/0 interface on RTA is shutdown. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/asa/asa84/configuration/guide/route_static.html) 


Q36. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Each of these four switches has been configured with a hostname, as well as being configured to run RSTP. No other configuration changes have been made. Which three of these show the correct RSTP port roles for the indicated switches and interfaces? (Choose three.) 

A. SwitchA, Fa0/2, designated 

B. SwitchA, Fa0/1, root 

C. SwitchB, Gi0/2, root 

D. SwitchB, Gi0/1, designated 

E. SwitchC, Fa0/2, root 

F. SwitchD, Gi0/2, root 

Answer: A,B,F 

Explanation: 

The question says "no other configuration changes have been made" so we can 

understand these switches have the same bridge priority. SwitchC has lowest MAC 

address so, it will become root bridge and 2 of its ports (Fa0/1 & Fa0/2) will be designated 

ports (DP). Because SwitchC is the root bridge the 2 ports nearest SwitchC on SwitchA 

(Fa0/1) and SwitchD (Gi0/2) will be root ports (RP) -> B and F are correct. 

SwitchB must have a root port so which port will it choose? To answer this question we 

need to know about STP cost and port cost. 

In general, "cost" is calculated based on bandwidth of the link. The higher the bandwidth on 

a link, the lower the value of its cost. Below are the cost values you should memorize: 

Link speed Cost SwitchB will choose the interface with lower cost to the root bridge as the root port so we must calculate the cost on interface Gi0/1 & Gi0/2 of SwitchB to the root bridge. This can be calculated from the "cost to the root bridge" of each switch because a switch always advertises its cost to the root bridge in its BPDU. The receiving switch will add its local port cost value to the cost in the BPDU. SwitchC advertises its cost to the root bridge with a value of 0. Switch D adds 4 (the cost value of 1Gbps link) and advertises this value (4) to SwitchB. SwitchB adds another 4 and learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/1 port with a total cost of 8. The same process happens for SwitchA and SwitchB learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/2 with a total cost of 23 -> Switch B chooses Gi0/1 as its root port. Now our last task is to identify the port roles of the ports between SwitchA & SwitchB. It is rather easy as the MAC address of SwitchA is lower than that of SwitchB so Fa0/2 of SwitchA will be designated port while Gi0/2 of SwitchB will be alternative port. 


Q37. - (Topic 2) 

Which type of EIGRP route entry describes a feasible successor? 

A. a backup route, stored in the routing table 

B. a primary route, stored in the routing table 

C. a backup route, stored in the topology table 

D. a primary route, stored in the topology table 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. Feasible successor is a route whose Advertised Distance (AD) is less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the current best path. A feasible successor is a backup route, which is not stored in the routing table but, stored in the topology table. 


Q38. - (Topic 1) 

Which two states are the port states when RSTP has converged? (Choose two.) 

A. discarding 

B. listening 

C. learning 

D. forwarding 

E. disabled 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w) 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml 

Port States There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state. RSTP only has 3 port states which are discarding, learning and forwarding. When RSTP has converged there are only 2 port states left: discarding and forwarding. 


Q39. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Assume that all of the router interfaces are operational and configured correctly. How will router R2 be affected by the configuration of R1 that is shown in the exhibit? 

A. Router R2 will not form a neighbor relationship with R1. 

B. Router R2 will obtain a full routing table, including a default route, from R1. 

C. R2 will obtain OSPF updates from R1, but will not obtain a default route from R1. 

D. R2 will not have a route for the directly connected serial network, but all other directly connected networks will be present, as well as the two Ethernet networks connected to R1. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Open Shortest Path First http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First 

The configuration of R1 shows "router ospf 1" however, the diagram also shows that both routers should be in the backbone OSPF Area of "0". When routers are in different OSPF areas they will not form a neighbor relationship. Neighbor relationships As a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships in order to exchange routing updates with other routers. The neighbor relationship table is called an adjacency database in OSPF. Provided that OSPF is configured correctly, OSPF forms neighbor relationships only with the routers directly connected to it. In order to form a neighbor relationship between two routers, the interfaces used to form the relationship must be in the same area. Generally an interface is only configured in a single area, however you can configure an interface to belong to multiple areas. In the second area, such an interface must be configured as a secondary interface. (A neighbor state simulation shows how neighbor state changes from Down to Full Adjacency progressively with exchanging Hello, DD, Request, Update, and Ack packets). 


Q40. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

When running EIGRP, what is required for RouterA to exchange routing updates with RouterC? 

A. AS numbers must be changed to match on all the routers 

B. Loopback interfaces must be configured so a DR is elected 

C. The no auto-summary command is needed on Router A and Router C 

D. Router B needs to have two network statements, one for each connected network 

Answer: A Explanation: 

Here we required same autonomous system between router A,B,C.Routing updated always exchange between in same EIGRP EIGRP autonomous system.you can configure more than one EIGRP autonomous system on the same router. This is typically done at a redistribution point where two EIGRP autonomous systems are interconnected. Individual router interfaces should only be included within a single EIGRP autonomous system. Cisco does not recommend running multiple EIGRP autonomous systems on the same set of interfaces on the router. If multiple EIGRP autonomous systems are used with multiple points of mutual redistribution, it can cause discrepancies in the EIGRP topology table if correct filtering is not performed at the redistribution points. If possible, Cisco recommends you configure only one EIGRP autonomous system in any single autonomous system. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml